Amino Acids- Proline & Threonine

Proline: It is non-essential amino acid. It is one of the important parts of collagen, which binds and supports the cells. It promotes healing of wounds and effectiveness gets enhanced in combination with vitamin C.

Proline is pyrolidine carboxylic acid. Proline and hydroxyproline are cyclic compounds do not possess free amino group, but react like a amino acid. They are non-essential glycogenic and formed in the body form glutamic acid and ornithine.

Proline is formed glutamate by reversal of the reactions of praline is oxidized to glutamate and transminated to ketoglutarate.

Two types of hyperprolinemias I & II occur, and are half of the known cases mental retardation happens. The prevalence is retardation happens. The prevalence is 1:300 000, mostly benign and none is life threatening. The type I is praline oxidase deficient and type II is pyroline-carboxylic acid dehyrogenase deficient. The praline level in serum and urine is raised, and no treatment is required.

There is a close relation among the metabolism of praline, arginine, glutamic acid, and ornithine. On oxidation praline produces hydroxyproline, but reverse is not true.

Threonine: It is amino-hydroxy-butyric acid. It is an essential amino acid and thus indispensable in the diet. It is only synthesized in the micro organics like Escherichia coli and also in yeast from (a) aspartic acid, and (b) glycine and acetaldehyde. Threonine is cleaved to acetaldehyde and glycine by threonine aldolase. Threonine may be deaminated to form the ketobutyric acid by enzyme threonine dehydrase.

It is required for the development and proper functioning of brain. Its deficiency causes irritability in children. It is helpful in digestion and intestinal functions. It checks extra fat in liver.

Sources of Threonine: Threonine is available in plenty in maize, rice, wheat germ, fieldbean, rajmah, agathi, lettuce, spinach, colocasia, bitter gourd, and cauliflower, jackfruit, cashew nut, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, apples, persimmon, egg, pork, milk, and yeast. The RDA for children is 28 mg. and for adults is 7 mg per kg. of body weight.

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More on Proline Benefits, Dosage, Deficiency, Sources. Also read more on Threonine Benefits, Dosage, Deficiency, Sources. Read http://www.healthvitaminsguide.com - Information on Vitamins, Minerals, Amino Acids - http://www.healthvitaminsguide.com/aminoacids/proline.htm

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