Making Natural Dyes from Plants

photo credit: Kevin Connors |
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Did you know that a great source for natural dyes can be found right in your own back yard! Roots, nuts and flowers are just a few common natural ways to get many colors. Yellow, orange, blue, red, green, brown and grey are available. Go ahead, experiment!

Gathering plant material for dyeing: Blossoms should be in full bloom, berries ripe and nuts mature. Remember, never gather more than 2/3 of a stand of anything in the wild when gathering plant stuff for dying.

To make the dye solution: Chop plant material into small pieces and place in a pot. Double the amount of water to plant material. Bring to a boil, then simmer for about an hour. Strain. Now you can add your fabric to be dyed. For a stronger shade, allow material to soak in the dye overnight.

Getting the fabric ready for the dye bath: You will have to soak the fabric in a color fixative before the dye process. This will make the color set in the fabric.

Color Fixatives:

Salt Fixative (for berry dyes) 1/2 cup salt to 8 cups cold water

Plant Fixatives (for plant dyes) 4 parts cold water to 1 part vinegar

Add fabric to the fixative and simmer for an hour. Rinse the material and squeeze out excess. Rinse in cool water until water runs clear.

Dye Bath: Place wet fabric in dye bath. Simmer together until desired color is obtained. The color of the fabric will be lighter when its dry. Also note that all dyed fabric should be laundered in cold water and separately.

Muslin, silk, cotton and wool work best for natural dyes and the lighter the fabric in color, the better. White or pastel colors work the best.

NOTE: It’s best to use an old large pot as your dye vessel. Wear rubber gloves to handle the fabric that has been dyed, the dye can stain your hands. It’s also important to note, some plant dyes may be toxic, check with the Poison Control Center if unsure.

  A Listing of Plant Material Available for Dyes


photo credit:


Shades of ORANGE

________________________________________________________________________________________ Brown_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Alder (Alnus rubra) (Bark)- orange

– Barberry (mahonia sp.) yellow orange (with alum) very strong & permanent. Any part of the plant will work.

– Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) (root when cut open)- will give a good orange to reddish orange color.

– Butternut Tree (Juglans cinerea) – (bark, seed husks) – light yelllow-orange

– Carrot (Daucus carota) – (roots) – orange

– Eucalyptus – (all parts, leaves and bark) beautiful shades of tan, deep rust red, yellow, green, orange and chocolate brown.

– Giant Coreopsis (Coreopsis gigantea) Yields bright permanent orange with alum.

– Lichen (orchella weed) (Roccellaceae) – gold, purple, red

– Lilac (Syringa vulgaris) (twigs) – yellow/orange

– Onion (Allium cepa) (skin) – orange

– Pomegranate (skins)– with alum anywhere from orange to khaki green.

– Sassafras (leaves)

– Turmeric (Curcuma longa) dyed cloth will turn orange or red if it is dipped in lye.

photo credit:


Shades of  BROWN


Acorns (boiled)

– Amur Maple (Acer Ginnala) – black, blue, brown from dried leaves.

Beetroot -Dark Brown with FeSO4

– Birch (bark) – Light brown/ buff – Alum to set

– Broom – (bark) – yellow/brown

Broom Sedge – golden yellow and brown


– Butternut Tree (Juglans cinerea) (bark) -dark brown – boil the bark down to concentrated form

Coffee Grinds

Colorado Fir – (bark) – tan

Coneflower (flowers) – brownish green ; leaves and stems – gold

– Dandelion (roots) brown

– Fennel – (flowers, leaves) – yellow/brown

Goldenrod (shoots ) – deep brown

– Hollyhock (petals)

– Ivy – (twigs) – yellow/brown

Juniper Berries

Maple Trees (Red Leaf Buds) – red-brown color when dried. Found on branches before new leaves appear only present during early spring and throughout fall.

Oak bark will give a tan or oak color.

Oregano – (Dried stalk) – Deep brown- Black

Pine Tree Bark – light medium brown. Needs no mordant.

St John’s Wort (blossom) – brown

Sumac (leaves) – tan

Tea Bags – light brown, tan

Walnut (hulls) – deep brown (wear gloves)

Walnut (husks) – deep brown – black

– White Birch – (inner bark) – brown

White Maple (bark) – Light brown/ buff – Alum to set

Wild plum root will give a reddish or rusty brown.

Yellow dock (shades of brown)


photo credit: Alvimann|


Shades of  PINK



Avocado from skin and seed – a light pink hue.


Raspberries (red)

Roses and Lavender, with a little mint and some lemon juice to activate the alkaloids can make both a brilliant pink dye and a very tasty pink lemonade.

Lichens – A pink, brown, or wine colored dye can be produced from a lichen known as British soldiers.

– Camilla –It’s a nice pink-magenta. With lemon and salt.

– Grand Fir -(bark) pink


photo credit: Alvimann |


Shades of  BLUE- PURPLE


Dogwood (bark) – blue

Red cabbage

Woad (first year leaves). Woad gives a pale to mid blue colour depending on the type of fabric and the amount of woad used.

Mulberries (royal purple)

Elderberries (lavender)

– Saffron – (petals) blue/green

Grapes (purple)


– Cornflower – (petals) blue dye with alum, water

Cherry (roots)

Blackberry (fruit) strong purple

– Hyacinth – (flowers) – blue

Japanese indigo (deep blue)

Indigo (leaves) – blue

Red Cedar Root (purple)

– Raspberry –(fruit) purple/blue

Red Maple Tree (purple)(inner bark)

– Nearly Black Iris – (dark bluish purple) alum mordant

– Dogwood – (fruit) greenish-blue

– Oregon Grape –(fruit) blue/purple

Purple Iris – blue

Sweetgum (bark) – purple / black

Queen Anne’s Lace


photo credit: Alvimann |


Shades of  RED – BROWN


Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) (root) – red

Elderberry – red

Whole (or the peel of) pomegranates – Between purple-red to pink from fresh pomegranates, and a brown color from very overripe (beginning to rot) pomegranates.

Red leaves will give a reddish brown color I use salt to set the dye.

Sumac (fruit) – light red

Sycamore (bark)- red

Dandelion (root)

Beets – deep red

Bamboo – turkey red

– Crab Apple – (bark) – red/yellow

Rose (hips)


Madder (root) – red

Hibiscus Flowers (dried)


Canadian Hemlock – (bark) reddish brown

– Japanese Yew – (heartwood) – brown dye

Wild ripe Blackberries

– Brazilwood

– St. John’s Wort – (whole plant) soaked in alcohol – red

Bedstraw (Galium triflorum) (root) – red


photo credit: Alvimann |


Shades of  GRAY-BLACK


 Iris (roots)

Sumac (leaves) (Black)

Meadowsweet makes an amazing black dye.


– Butternut Hulls

Carob pod (boiled) will give a gray to cotton

Oak galls – makes a good black dye.

Sawthorn Oak – (seed cups) – black

Walnut (hull) – black

Rusty nails & vinegar – set with Alum


photo credit: Alvimann |


Shades of  RED – PURPLE


Pokeweed (berries)

Hibiscus (flowers, dark red or purple ones) – red-purple.

Daylilies (old blooms)

– Safflower – (flowers, soaked in alcohol) – red

Logwood (is a good purple but you have to watch it as it dyes quick when the pot is fresh. Also it exhausts fast. We use alum to mordant and using iron can give you logwood gray.)

Huckleberry – lavender (can use it for dye and also for ink.)

Portulaca – (flowers, dried and crushed to a powder) use with a vinegar orsalt mordant, can produce strong magentas, reds, scarlets, oranges and
yellows (depending upon the color of the flower)

Beluga Black Lentils – soaked in water overnight .. yield a dark purplish / black water. The color is washfast and lightfast and needs NO MORDANT and it lasts – a beautiful milk chocolate brown (when super thick) … to a lighter medium brown or light brown when watered down.

Dark Hollyhock (petals) – mauve

Basil – purplish grey


photo credit: Alvimann |


Shades of  GREEN


Artemisia species provide a range of greens from baby’s breath to nettle green.

– Artichokes

– Tea Tree – (flowers) green/black

Spinach (leaves)

– Sorrel (roots) – dark green

– Foxglove – (flowers) apple green

– Lilac – (flowers) – green

– Camellia – (pink, red petals) – green

– Snapdragon – (flowers) – green

Black-Eyed Susans

Grass (yellow green)

– Pigsweed (entire plant) yellow green

– Red Pine (needles) green


– Broom – (stem) green

– Larkspur – green – alum

Plantain Roots

– White Ash – (bark) – yellow

– Purple Milkweed – (flowers & leaves) – green

Lily-of-the-valley (light green) be careful what you do with the spent dye bath. The plant is toxic so try to avoid pouring it down the drain into the water supply.

Barberry root (wool was dyed a greenish bronze-gold)

Red onion (skin) (a medium green, lighter than
forest green)

– Yarrow – (flowers) yellow & green shades

– Mulga Acacia – (seed pods) – green

– Peach – (leaves) yellow/green

– Coneflower (flowers) – green

Peppermint – dark kakhi green color

Peony (flowers) – pale lime green

Queen Anne’s Lace – pale green

Black-Eyed Susans – bright olive/apple green

Hydrangea (flowers) – alum mordant, added some copper and it came out a beautiful celery green

Chamomile (leaves) – green


photo credit: Alvimann |



Jewelweed – orange/peach

Broom Flower

Virginia Creeper (all parts); alum mordant; Peach.

Achiote powder (annatto seed)

Plum tree (roots) (salmon color on wool with alum)

Weeping Willow (wood & bark) makes a peachy brown (the tannin acts as a mordant)

– Virgina Creeper – (fruit) – pink

Balm (blossom) – rose pink

Jewelweed – orange/peach

Broom Flower

Virginia Creeper (all parts); alum mordant; Peach.

Achiote powder (annatto seed

Plum tree (roots) (salmon color on wool with alum)

Weeping Willow (wood & bark) makes a peachy brown (the tannin
acts as a mordant)

– Virgina Creeper – (fruit) – pink

Balm (blossom) – rose pink


photo credit: Alvimann |




– Alfalfa (seeds) – yellow

Bay leaves – yellow

Barberry (bark) – yellow

Beetroot (yellow) (alum & K2Cr2O7)


Cameleon plant (golden)

Celery (leaves)

Crocus – yellow

Daffodil (flower heads after they have died); alum mordant

Dahlia Flowers (Red, yellow, orange flowers) make a lovely yellow to orange dye for wool.

Dandelion (flower)

Dyer’s Greenwood (shoots) – yellow

Fustic – yellow

Golden Rod (flowers)

– Heather – (plant) – yellow

Hickory leaves (yellow) if plenty of leaves are boiled and salt added.

Marigold (blossoms) – yellow

– Mimosa – (flowers) yellow

Mulga Acacia -(flowers) – yellow

Mullein (leaf and root) pale yellow. *careful, because the little fuzzy hairs can make one itchy!

– Mullein (verbascum thapsus) (flowers) bright yellow or light green.

Old man’s beard lichen – yellow/brown/orange shades

– Onion (skins) – set with Alum.

Oregon-grape roots – yellow

Osage Orange also known as Bois d’arc or hedgeapple (heartwood, inner bark, wood, shavings or sawdust) (pale yellow)

Oxallis (wood sorrels) (flowers) – the one with the yellow flowers. Use the flower heads, some stem ok. It is nearly fluorescent yellow, and quite colorfast on alum mordanted wool.

If the oxalis flowers are fermented or if a small dash of cloudy ammonia is added to the dye bath (made alkaline) the fluorescent yellow becomes fluorescent orange. Usually I do this as an after-bath, once I have the initial colour. Useful for shifting the dye shade, and some good surprises in store!

Queen Anne’s Lace

Paprika -pale yellow – light orange

Peach (leaves) – yellow

Red Clover (whole blossom, leaves and stem) alum mordant – gold

Saffron (stigmas) – yellow – set with Alum.

Safflower (flowers, soaked in water) – yellow

Sassafras (bark)- yellow

St. John’s Wort – (flowers & leaves) – gold/yellow

Sumac (bark) – The inner pith of Sumac branches can produce a super bright yellow color.

– Sunflowers – (flowers) – yellow

– Syrian Rue (glows under black light)

Tansy (tops) – yellow

Tea ( ecru color)

Turmeric (spice) –bright yellow

Weld (bright yellow)

White mulberry tree (bark) Cream color onto white or off-white wool. Alum mordant.

Willow (leaves)

Yarrow – yellow and gold

Yellow cone flower (whole flower head); chrome mordant; Brass to Greeney-Brass.

Yellow, Curly, Bitter, or Butter Dock (despite various leaf shapes, all have a bright yellow taproot) gives you a yellow/flesh color.

Author: PioneerThinking – Ingredients for a Simple Life

Photo credits:  Alvimann | Kevin Connors

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194 Responses to Making Natural Dyes from Plants

  1. ritashree dasgupta says:

    if i use beet root for colour what fixative should i use?

  2. Rhondda says:

    Hi – We are trying to make red dye. We’ve used strawberries, beetroot, cherries, tomatoes and tamarillos. We followed all the instructions, but upon washing the beetroot and strawberry samples – they completely washed out. Like totally – back to white calico.Can anyone help with advice please?

    Many thanks! Rhondda from New Zealand

    • Sarah - honey badger crafts says:

      If they wash out its usually because the mordant didn’t take. Was the wool cleaned before mordanting? How much wool did you use? I usually use 100g wool to 8g alum and 7g cream of tartar. That seems to work.

  3. Nikki says:

    Could you please elaborate how you get purple dye from Queen Anne’s Lace? Everything I have read says it will make a pale yellow (flowers) or pale green (whole plant) dye. I rarely mordant wool or protein fibers like silk. I use an acidic bath (lemon juice or vinegar) for wool or other animal proteins or a basic bath (baking soda, soda ash, or ammonia) for cotton, linen, soy or mulberry silk or tencel. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

  4. Connie M says:

    Wonderful info! Thanks for taking the time to share. I feel inspired to give it a go.

  5. Tamia Anderson says:

    My question you is about this plant called Rhodendron. There are thermometer plants. You didn’t say nothing about that and you should,really.

  6. Елена says:

    Спасибо за очень полезную информацию. Я занимаюсь нунофелтингом и постоянно окрашиваю шелк и шерсть. Теперь, благодаря вам, у меня будет намного шире цветовой спектр.Желаю новых творческих успехов! Спасибо.

    Translation: Thank you for the very useful information . I do nunofeltingom and permanently color the silk and wool . Now, thanks to you , I will have a much wider color spectrum, new creative successes ! Thank you.

  7. warila says:

    amazing what beautiful information about mother nature you have given me.

  8. Dawn says:

    Three questions:

    If I want to dye long lengths of fabric for draping (think Moroccan-style bed canopies or Indian wedding tenting), is there a way to just dye portions of the material but keep the color consistent throughout if I don’t have a large enough pot?

    Can used water or the plants that have been strained from the water be kept for repeated uses (for several weeks or months)?

    After I am completely done with the organic materials, can they be added to compost piles/bins or are there any issues from any of the mordants that would make this problematic?

  9. Cyndi says:

    Amazing listing! Thank you

  10. In fact, most of the natural dyes come from plants, although there are some that come from insects and mineral sources. Listing them up here was probably a very time-consuming task. I am a gardener and will most probably force myself to remember at least ten, so I could appear smart among colleagues! Jokes aside, a splendid list, really impressed.

    Regards, Zak

  11. Callie says:

    Can you do this with soap?

  12. Patti DeRaps says:

    Thank you so much for all this wonderful information. So many beautiful colors . I want a blue green color but what I want to dye is a ver large duvet it is a silk/poly combo do you think it would work? What could I put it in and what mordant would I need?

  13. Maggie says:

    I tried doing this but after the hour of simmering all of the water had evaporated. Does anyone know what happened and how I can avoid it in the future? Also, since I need the dye by a certain time, I added more water to the pot and plan to let it sit overnight. Will the dye still work?

  14. Can you tell me what sort of mordants or fixatives were used in the seventeenth century? I am writing my 3rd novel set in 1689 New Hampshire and need to know. Thank you! 🙂

    • Patti DeRaps says:

      I am from Dover NH originally I would love to know the names of your novels if they are all set in NH?

    • Memy says:

      One very common fixative was stale urine. There was a barrel set outside of the ale house for men to relieve themselves in. This was taken and used to set colors such as indigo. The uric acid was the active ingredient. Several rinses in cold water will remove the smell.

  15. Suzi Kwak says:

    Fantastic, thanks for sharing ,

  16. Louisa says:

    Thank you for this wonderful information! I just gave plant dying a try for the first time and LOVE the results. So fun. And addicting!

  17. Audrey says:

    I was wondering if anyone knew how to get the plants?
    As in, where do I buy them? I live in Clevand, Ohio.
    Specifically, the red clover alum mordant to make gold.

  18. Zane says:

    Anyone know how to do black cant find anything other than on the website and I don.t have access to these material. Thanks

    • Alexandra says:

      Hey, so I hope this helps: Grey/ Black can be made with Blackberries, Walnut Hulls and Iris root. It often takes a higher ratio of plant material/dye to water to achieve a truly black color. If you’re using a mordant rather than just vinegar use Alum or tin for a warm grey/ black, or use Iron or copper to create a cool black.

  19. angie says:

    i heard you can make ink from gunnera plants. has anyone done this? whats it like and can anyone tell me how to, please!

  20. Daniell Segovia says:

    would color last if I dye using organic bamboo cotton fabric?
    any other tricks to make it last longer 🙂
    thanks hope these aren’t silly questions

    • Beth says:

      Do not use bamboo fabric as it has a very bad carbon footprint. Yes it is a renewable source, but it takes lots of chemicals and water to soften the fibers. And the water just becomes so polluted from this process. Bamboo is so hard that it makes for great furniture and floors, but not for fiber.

      • Alex says:

        That’s very interesting, I didn’t know that. Bamboo is much talked about as an eco friendly fibre these days so I will look into this further. I was recently looking into fabric types for making my own flat cloth nappies and am so glad I chose a hemp and organic cotton blend over bamboo now. I had a nagging feeling at the back of my mind not to trust all the hype 🙂

  21. Freyja says:

    Hi there, I am a furniture designer working in Japan. I see here that is is possible to make a “Turkey red” dye using bamboo, but I can’t find out how anywhere! I would be so so grateful if someone could explain how, or tell me where I can find out?

    Thank you so much

    Freyja Sewell

  22. jack.n says:

    now it makes sencce.

  23. jack.n says:

    if you us

  24. Stephanie Quattrini says:

    Thanks for all the information – generous of you to share.
    My question is about dyeing paper which is my latest ‘obsession.’ I wonder if anyone has advice on fixing the dye on paper. What I usually do is roll up different types of paper (handmade, Japanese etc.) put 2cm methylated spirits in a glass jar, add food colouring add paper and put lid on jar for an hour. Have to use meths in Australia as it is not possible to obtain rubbing alcohol above 60%.
    All suggestions welcome!

  25. jean kirkman says:

    I was wondering if there are any courses or 1 day workshop to dye wool in or around Wiltshire.I think it will be for anytime in 2016 now.
    Thank you

  26. jackie says:

    My light ivory, hand crocheted sweater turned white in the wash. I would like to return it to the original color light ivory.
    What would you recommend? It is one of a kind.

    Thank you.

  27. Gins says:

    Love this site. Been dyeing for 25 years. Great tips!. Thanks

  28. Jackson Clark says:


  29. Kiran Grube says:

    The pokeweed berries are amazing- they come out an amazing bright fuschia. This dye is pretty fickle, though- if the dye is dried at any time, the dye turns a gross brown. If heated, the pink will turn red and then orange; it will turn pinker with acid and purpler with base. A little baking soda will turn it royal purple and more will turn it blue, but beware- adding too much will cause all the soda to sink to the bottom like sludge, and the dyed stuff will be pale yellow. To get that trademark pink stain, use only the juice from FRESH, RIPE berries, do not heat, use a vinegar mordant.

  30. Bill Haynie says:

    Has anyone experimented with Hemp as a green dye? Thanks, Bill

    • mike hunt says:

      ye hemp turns a lovely light green and if you light it on fire you see lots of diffremt colours cause yo ass is high

      • Sarah says:

        Lol….good one!!….lol. If u could use it for stain, probably still wouldn’t want to. Bet it would leave that skunky stench along with any color! Ugh!

        • Lorin says:

          Hemp is not pot ^^

          This is wonderful list, but please consider removing bloodroot from your list. It’s endangered.

          • eloiseholland says:

            Bloodroot can also raise weals on your skin. Don’t use it. A lot of the dye materials listed are not very light fast. Try the Yahoo Natural Dye group for good well researched info.

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