Leucine: It is an essential amino acid and is not synthesized. It is amino-isocaproic acid. This may be synthesized by the micro-organism from ketoisovaleric acid and acetyl CoA. Acetyl CoA is convertible to ketone bodies and thus the leucine is ketogenic amino acid. It gives energy in combination will isoleucine and valine. It regulates protein metabolism.
Sources of Leucine: It is found in plenty in bajra, jowar, wheat, Bengal gram, black gram, field bean, soyabean, drumstick leaves, spinach, colocasia, radish, sweet potato, bitter gourd, cauliflower, almond, gingelly seeds, pistachio, walnut, apple, beef, egg, milk, and cheese. The RDA for children is 42 mg, and for adults is 14 mg per kg. body weight.
Isoleucine: It is an amino-methylvaleric acid. It is essential and is not synthesized in the body. This is also synthesis in the micro-organism.
The catabolism of isoleucine leads to suddinyl-CoA, acetyl, and C02 with reactions analogous to reactions of straight and banchedchain fatty acid catabolism.
It regulates metabolism, and functioning of thymus gland, spleen, and pituitary glands. It helps in formation of haemoglobin.
Sources of Isoleucine: It is available in millet, ragi, rice, black gram, rajmah, bathua, spinach, radish, sweet potato, tomato, ash gourd, cashew nut, linseed, banana, apple, egg, cheese, and dry yeast. The RDA for children is 28 mg, and for adults is 10 mg per kg. body weight.
Glycine: Glycine is one of the most versatile with simplest chemical structure in amino acids. As the body can synthesise it, this is non-essential amino acid. Glycine is glycogenic and antiketogenic.
The synthesis of glycine occurs in may ways. It is synthesized from glyoxylate and glutamate or alanine catalysed by glycine transaminases in liver. It if formed from choline and serine as well.
Glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid are found in glutathione, a tripetide widely distributed in the tissues. Glycine takes an important part in the synthesis of creatine.
Glycinuria is indicated by urinary excretion of 0.6-1 gm of glycine per day and a tendency to form oxalate renal stones. It results from a defect in renal tubular reabsorption. In vitamin B-6 deficiency excess oxalate is excreted in the urine if excess glycine is fed.
Many metabolites like bile glycocholic acid and hippuric acid are excreted in urine as water-soluble glycine conjugates. The capacity of liver to convert food additive benzoate to hip uric acid was earlier used to evaluate liver function. Metabolic ketoacidosis with development retardation in the disorder of methylmalonic academia prevailing 1:20000, releasing excess of glycine in blood and urine is to be treated by vitamin balanced diet-12.
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