Are you one of those home gardeners that don’t know the three stumbling blocks to successfully growing grapes in your backyard? Don’t worry, you’re not alone.
I have grown grapes successfully under the worst of conditions since 1975 and I can tell you that most of the problems gardeners encounter are because they don’t understand the nature of the beast that they are growing. So let’s look at the problems that I see when people, like you, have me come and analyze what problems they are having growing the backyard grapevine.
The first problem I see is that gardeners want to grow some grapes but they are unaware of the variety they are growing and its growth habit. This leads to many problems from the get go. Each variety has to be treated as an individual. The most common varieties in local nurseries are either Concord types or the European vinifera grape. It all depends on whether you live East or West of the Rockies. In the East, Concord types are common. In the West, especially along the Pacific Coast, you will find the vinifera varieties. Each distinct type have differing growth habits and this influences what you will have to do to maintain them.
Concord types have a more drooping habit of growth. Vinifera types are more upward in their growth habit. What does this mean? It means that each type has to be trained differently because they grow differently. Because the Concord types droop, they must be trained high and allowed to droop downward during the growing season. The vinifera types must be trained low and allowed to grow upward. This takes advantage of the natural growth habit and maximizes the sunlight into the leaves to get the best ripening conditions and yield of grapes.
Each variety varies in how vigorous the growth is. This trait determines the distance between vines when planted. Low vigor vines must be planted closer while high vigor vines need more space. You don’t want high vigor vines planted close as they will run into each other and be hard to maintain over the years. Conversely, low vigor vines planted farther apart will leave gaps of space that will never be filled and you will lose yield because of this.
Gardeners must also be aware of the ripening habits of the variety. Some varieties ripen early and are grown in areas where the growing season is short. Others need much more time to mature. These are late varieties and will need up to 170 days or more to ripen. Then there are those that are in between. You have to select the varieties that are adapted to your growing conditions. Your local nurseryman should be able to help you out there.
One last thing when considering varieties is whether you want to eat them or make wine. Table grapes are to be eaten and wine grapes obviously are to make wine from. The two types are distinct and you can’t make wine from most table grapes as they don’t get high enough in sugar content and the acids are too low to balance the wine. While wine grapes are small berried and seedy, not suited for eating.
The second big problem I see is that the vines are a tangled mess. Vines need maximum exposure to the sun to be able to ripen the grapes. When they are allowed to grow out of control, the vine leaves begin to shade the vine and this allows for disease and insects to set in (some varieties will need spraying throughout the growing season for disease and insect control), and for less than optimal conditions for ripening the fruit properly. Vines must be pruned properly each year for maximum fruitfulness and health.
Pruning means removing 75-90% of the previous year’s growth. This seems drastic but it maintains the health and vigor of the vine. It also means the maximum production of fruit and the best ripening conditions. You can’t ignore pruning the vine each spring. It is a must! There are various styles of pruning. These are dependent on the variety and its growth habit. Some varieties are pruned long and some require short “spur” pruning.
Long pruned vines are not fruitful in the bottom, (basal buds). The maximum fruitfulness on these vines comes from the middle buds on the canes from last year’s growth. Varieties that bear fruit from the bottom, basal buds are spur pruned. Pruning is an art in itself and comes out of a knowledge of how the vine grows. But if not done, the vine will be shaded, get diseased, and overbear, thus weakening the vine. Not pruning will lead to lowered yields and improper ripening. It can also lead to the death of the vine over time. This is especially true in areas with winters. Pruning will instill more winter hardiness because of healthy growing conditions.
Harvesting too early is the last major problem I see from backyard gardeners. People seem to think that as soon as the grapes begin to color that they are ripe. This can be far from the truth. Coloring, known as verasion, occurs weeks before the grapes are actually ripe. Grapes need to attain a good sugar content and acid balance before they can be harvested. Many people harvest their grapes before they have reached this point and are disappointed in the taste or the wine made from these grapes.
Here again, varieties differ in when they are ripe. It is best to use simple qualitative analysis to determine ripeness. The easiest way is to purchase a refractometer to determine the sugar content of the berries. Table grapes can be harvested between 16 and 18% sugar. Wine grapes usually need a sugar content of around 22-24% sugar or more to be harvested and obtain the right alcohol content of the wine.
Growing grapes in the backyard or garden can be a rewarding experience if done correctly. If grown haphazardly, the vines can become overgrown, tangled messes and never ripen properly. Often leading to death of the vine or disappointment at least. You should read as many reference books on the subject as you can before starting out to plant your backyard vineyard. The more you know about the grapes you are planting the better.
More information on growing grapes (especially under marginal conditions where grapes are not usually found growing), can be found at Jim’s website. Just visit:
I have a problem – the fruit doesn’t seem to set. The tiny grapes appear then seem to feather off and drop – is there a mineral the grape is needing? I grew grapes on the South side of the house with no problem – took them down planted new plants and have not have success in 6 years because of this fruit drop. Can you give me any suggesions or have you heard of this before? Thank you. Mary
A lack of Phosphorus will cause them to fall off or to stop growing and then they fall off. Compost is full of Phosphorus and Nitrogen which are important when growing grapes. Rock dust (azomite) is my favorite brand. This is made from rocks and ground down into a dust. Spread it around the trunk and work it into the soil a little and water it in. These 2 things alone should help. You could also check the soils PH level. It needs to be a 6.8.
Wine made from these grapes have a lot of health benefits for humans, especially the red wine. Thanks for the good information.
My grape vines, planted this spring, are not growing. Leaves are yellowing and there is no growth, Then, bugs started munching on them. Any suggestions? (concord and niagara varieties)
I have a large 20×50 feet that is 100 years old the foliage is good but after the grapes start appearing they turn black, need to know what to do for this problem.
my grapes start out good 1urn green than turn brown before they get to ripen, what to do.
please submit reason for grapes turning brown before getting ripe. i live east tn.
We live in northern California and have some grapes growing in the backyard. They grow pretty much in all directions with little control. This year we have small bunches of grapes but they never develop into a full size grape. what are we missing? Do we need to know the varieties to know if they need to be pruned each year?
Plant and prune yearly. But haven’t seen many grapes. I do have squirrels and birds. Is it possible that they are preventing my grapes to grow. The vines look full and plentiful, If you think it is pest, how do I prevent them from destroying my grapes.
We have Thompson and Concord grape vines, about 5 yrs old.each season, instead of new growth coming off the main stock, there is a mass of new growth coming from the base of the plant, and the stack is dead.
am wondering why my concord grapes (3 years old) are not turing purple. It is October 9 and they have not turned purple yet although some of them have and fell off. We live in zone 5 in Central New York. We were so excited to see all the clusters but dissapointed to see they are not turning the usual purple color.
Any ideas or comments will be greatly appreciated.
remove some of the leaves shading the grapes. Sunlight causes them to ripen
Can you use plastic coated wire for growing grapes one of the pictures above looks like the wire is coated
I have a small orchard and I want to plant grapes but I am in an almost zone 2 area, is their a variety that can stand these winter temps. I Honeyberries, raspberries, Nanking cherry that do fine here. Just the grapes I am not willing to gamble on.
Zone 2 doesn’t have a lot of options but you can try Valiant grapes (Fredonia X V. riparia)its suitable for zone 2. They can withstand -50F (-45C) or more. Tastes similar to concord grapes.
Could you tell me the best pruning & training system for Somerset Seedless as well as Reliance? I’m quite new to grape growing & am completely lost on things such as “basal eye fruit bearing.”
I live in orlando Florida. I have a beautiful scuppernong grape vine. It is full of grapes that are dropping before getting ripe in mid July. It also did this last year. Have not cut the vines back for a couple of years
hi, I was wondering about the different climate zones. Why I live in zone 17 in the farmers almanac and live in zone 9 in the Sunset magazine. I actually live on the southern Oregon coast but what I am trying to grasp is why I have a different zone for every publication and have not moved an inch. So prune the grapes in the spring? thank you
hi Debbie not sure why the difference in climate zones. I would base my decisions on the USDA plant hardiness guide. It’s very specific to your area and will guide you what plants would do best for your area. Sunset nursery sounds like they are matched to your zone though. So depending on the type of grapes you have, it will indicate the best pruning time, usually it’s spring.
I would like to start growing grapes? My grandmother always grew concord grapes to make jelly. I would like to do the same. Can I plant them now? (September) I live in zone 6b. When is the best time to plant them? Thanks!
This is an excellent post! I find grapes really difficult to grow and take care of. I bought a house in the countryside of Spain and the yard had a lot of different fruit trees including few different sorts of grape. I don’t know anything about growing grape or in a matter of fact, how to maintain a garden as a general. This year the grape was not really good but I am determined to succeed with it next year! Thank you for the useful information and tips!
we recently moved to the south Okanagan BC. The new place has three grape vines, small purple seeded fruit.
My question is ,when do we stop watering the vines so they can go dormant for the winter. Your site was very helpful in telling when and how to prune, but am finding it difficult to find an answer to my question.help!
How do I keep the birds from eating my grapes before they mature?
I am looking for a local CT nursery to purchase grape vines about 2 years old.
I HAVE BEEN TRYING TO GROW GRAPES FOR 5 YEARS NOW . ALL I SEE IS VINES ALL OVER THE PLACE. BUT NO GRAPES. SHOULD I CUT ALL OF THE VINES OFF UNTIL NEXT YEARS? I HAVE BLACK AND GREEN GRAPES.SHOULD I HAVE THE GRAPES 4 OR 6 FEET OFF THE GROUND NOW THEY ARE 2 FEET OFF THE GROUND.
MY FRUIT TREES ARE NOT BARING FRUIT. WHAT IS THE PROBLEM? I HAVE PEACHES, PEARS,PLUMS AND APPLE TREES. THEY PRODUCED A SMALL AMOUNT OF FRUIT ONCE I THREE YEARS, WHAT CAN I DO ABOUT IT.
Several people have asked a similar question. I really was hoping someone had replied to them because I have had the same problem the last 3 years. The grapes start off great them turn brown when they get about 1/4 inch in diameter? What seems to be the problem? Is there anybody that can help any of us? I’ve had these vines about 15 years Concord and Niagara.
Have 2 Thompson seedless grape plants & both plants are growing well with several bunches of grapes but turn purple before ripening. If I taste the fruit before they turn to a purple color from green they are sour. They taste fine but I thought they were to be green?
I’m in the San Diego Ca area.
I have a vine growing in my back yard and some purple grapes are growing. Are they poisonous?
MY Dad is from Louisiana and thinks I could grow 1 muscadine and several scuppernog vines I live in the PNW North area Arlington. Is this possible and if so do you know where I can buy these two here?
In reply to Donna Schlesier.
remove some of the leaves shading the grapes. Sunlight causes them to ripen
I am using purple liquid dye to dye a white polyester dress. I would like the dress to turn out more of a lavender color. Any tips on how I can achieve this color?